Druid adapter

Druid is a fast column-oriented distributed data store. It allows you to execute queries via a JSON-based query language, in particular OLAP-style queries. Druid can be loaded in batch mode or continuously; one of Druid’s key differentiators is its ability to load from a streaming source such as Kafka and have the data available for query within milliseconds.

Calcite’s Druid adapter allows you to query the data using SQL, combining it with data in other Calcite schemas.

First, we need a model definition. The model gives Calcite the necessary parameters to create an instance of the Druid adapter.

A basic example of a model file is given below:

{
  "version": "1.0",
  "defaultSchema": "wiki",
  "schemas": [
    {
      "type": "custom",
      "name": "wiki",
      "factory": "org.apache.calcite.adapter.druid.DruidSchemaFactory",
      "operand": {
        "url": "http://localhost:8082",
        "coordinatorUrl": "http://localhost:8081"
      },
      "tables": [
        {
          "name": "wiki",
          "factory": "org.apache.calcite.adapter.druid.DruidTableFactory",
          "operand": {
            "dataSource": "wikiticker",
            "interval": "1900-01-09T00:00:00.000Z/2992-01-10T00:00:00.000Z",
            "timestampColumn": "time",
            "dimensions": [
              "channel",
              "cityName",
              "comment",
              "countryIsoCode",
              "countryName",
              "isAnonymous",
              "isMinor",
              "isNew",
              "isRobot",
              "isUnpatrolled",
              "metroCode",
              "namespace",
              "page",
              "regionIsoCode",
              "regionName",
              "user"
            ],
            "metrics": [
              {
                "name" : "count",
                "type" : "count"
              },
              {
                "name" : "added",
                "type" : "longSum",
                "fieldName" : "added"
              },
              {
                "name" : "deleted",
                "type" : "longSum",
                "fieldName" : "deleted"
              },
              {
                "name" : "delta",
                "type" : "longSum",
                "fieldName" : "delta"
              },
              {
                "name" : "user_unique",
                "type" : "hyperUnique",
                "fieldName" : "user"
              }
            ]
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  ]
}

This file is stored as druid/src/test/resources/druid-wiki-model.json, so you can connect to Druid via sqlline as follows:

$ ./sqlline
sqlline> !connect jdbc:calcite:model=druid/src/test/resources/druid-wiki-model.json admin admin
sqlline> select "countryName", cast(count(*) as integer) as c
         from "wiki"
         group by "countryName"
         order by c desc limit 5;
+----------------+------------+
| countryName    |     C      |
+----------------+------------+
|                | 35445      |
| United States  | 528        |
| Italy          | 256        |
| United Kingdom | 234        |
| France         | 205        |
+----------------+------------+
5 rows selected (0.279 seconds)
sqlline>

That query shows the top 5 countries of origin of wiki page edits on 2015-09-12 (the date covered by the wikiticker data set).

Now let’s see how the query was evaluated:

sqlline> !set outputformat csv
sqlline> explain plan for
         select "countryName", cast(count(*) as integer) as c
         from "wiki"
         group by "countryName"
         order by c desc limit 5;
'PLAN'
'EnumerableInterpreter
  BindableProject(countryName=[$0], C=[CAST($1):INTEGER NOT NULL])
    BindableSort(sort0=[$1], dir0=[DESC], fetch=[5])
      DruidQuery(table=[[wiki, wiki]], groups=[{4}], aggs=[[COUNT()]])
'
1 row selected (0.024 seconds)

That plan shows that Calcite was able to push down the GROUP BY part of the query to Druid, including the COUNT(*) function, but not the ORDER BY ... LIMIT. (We plan to lift this restriction; see [CALCITE-1206].)

Foodmart data set

The test VM also includes a data set that denormalizes the sales, product and customer tables of the Foodmart schema into a single Druid data set called “foodmart”.

You can access it via the druid/src/test/resources/druid-foodmart-model.json model.

Simplifying the model

If less metadata is provided in the model, the Druid adapter can discover it automatically from Druid. Here is a schema equivalent to the previous one but with dimensions, metrics and timestampColumn removed:

{
  "version": "1.0",
  "defaultSchema": "wiki",
  "schemas": [
    {
      "type": "custom",
      "name": "wiki",
      "factory": "org.apache.calcite.adapter.druid.DruidSchemaFactory",
      "operand": {
        "url": "http://localhost:8082",
        "coordinatorUrl": "http://localhost:8081"
      },
      "tables": [
        {
          "name": "wiki",
          "factory": "org.apache.calcite.adapter.druid.DruidTableFactory",
          "operand": {
            "dataSource": "wikiticker",
            "interval": "1900-01-09T00:00:00.000Z/2992-01-10T00:00:00.000Z"
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  ]
}

Calcite dispatches a segmentMetadataQuery to Druid to discover the columns of the table. Now, let’s take out the tables element:

{
  "version": "1.0",
  "defaultSchema": "wiki",
  "schemas": [
    {
      "type": "custom",
      "name": "wiki",
      "factory": "org.apache.calcite.adapter.druid.DruidSchemaFactory",
      "operand": {
        "url": "http://localhost:8082",
        "coordinatorUrl": "http://localhost:8081"
      }
    }
  ]
}

Calcite discovers the “wikiticker” data source via the /druid/coordinator/v1/metadata/datasources REST call. Now that the “wiki” table element is removed, the table is called “wikiticker”. Any other data sources present in Druid will also appear as tables.

Our model is now a single schema based on a custom schema factory with only two operands, so we can dispense with the model and supply the operands as part of the connect string:

  jdbc:calcite:schemaFactory=org.apache.calcite.adapter.druid.DruidSchemaFactory; schema.url=http://localhost:8082; schema.coordinatorUrl=http://localhost:8081

In fact, those are the default values of the operands, so we can omit them:

  jdbc:calcite:schemaFactory=org.apache.calcite.adapter.druid.DruidSchemaFactory

Now, we can connect to sqlline using a very simple connect string, and list the available tables:

$ ./sqlline
sqlline> !connect jdbc:calcite:schemaFactory=org.apache.calcite.adapter.druid.DruidSchemaFactory admin admin
sqlline> !tables
+-----------+-------------+------------+--------------+
| TABLE_CAT | TABLE_SCHEM | TABLE_NAME | TABLE_TYPE   |
+-----------+-------------+------------+--------------+
|           | adhoc       | foodmart   | TABLE        |
|           | adhoc       | wikiticker | TABLE        |
|           | metadata    | COLUMNS    | SYSTEM_TABLE |
|           | metadata    | TABLES     | SYSTEM_TABLE |
+-----------+-------------+------------+--------------+

We see the two system tables (TABLES and COLUMNS), and the two tables in Druid (foodmart and wikiticker).