Here’s some miscellaneous documentation about using Avatica.

Building from a source distribution

Prerequisites are maven (3.2.1 or later) and Java (JDK 8 or later) on your path.

Unpack the source distribution .tar.gz or .zip file, cd to the root directory of the unpacked source, then build using maven:

$ tar xvfz apache-calcite-avatica-1.11.0-src.tar.gz
$ cd apache-calcite-avatica-1.11.0-src
$ mvn install

Running tests describes how to run more or fewer tests.

Building from git

Prerequisites are git, maven (3.2.1 or later) and Java (JDK 8 or later) on your path.

Create a local copy of the github repository, cd to its root directory, then build using maven:

$ git clone git:// avatica
$ cd avatica
$ mvn install

Running tests describes how to run more or fewer tests.

Running tests

The test suite will run by default when you build, unless you specify -DskipTests:

$ mvn clean verify -Dcheckstyle.skip

By default, invoking the verify Maven lifecycle phase will also cause checkstyle rules to be run. It is expected that contributions pass the checkstyle rules; however, it is common to ignore these while working on a feature/bug and fix them at the end.


See the developers guide.

Getting started

See the developers guide.

Advanced topics for developers

The following sections might be of interest if you are adding features to particular parts of the code base. You don’t need to understand these topics if you are just building from source and running tests.

Rebuilding generated Protocol Buffer code

Calcite’s Avatica Server component supports RPC serialization using Protocol Buffers. In the context of Avatica, Protocol Buffers can generate a collection of messages defined by a schema. The library itself can parse old serialized messages using a new schema. This is highly desirable in an environment where the client and server are not guaranteed to have the same version of objects.

Typically, the code generated by the Protocol Buffers library doesn’t need to be re-generated only every build, only when the schema changes.

First, install Protobuf 3.1:

$ wget
$ tar xf protobuf-java-3.1.0.tar.gz && cd protobuf-3.1.0
$ ./configure
$ make
$ sudo make install

Then, re-generate the compiled code:

$ cd avatica/core
$ ./src/main/scripts/

Advanced topics for committers

The following sections are of interest to Calcite committers and in particular release managers.

Set up PGP signing keys (for Calcite committers)

Follow instructions here to create a key pair. (On Mac OS X, I did brew install gpg and gpg --gen-key.)

Add your public key to the KEYS file by following instructions in the KEYS file. (The KEYS file is not present in the git repo or in a release tar ball because that would be redundant.)

Run a GPG agent

By default, Maven plugins which require you to unlock a GPG secret key will prompt you in the terminal. To prevent you from having to enter this password numerous times, it is highly recommended to install and run gpg-agent.

This can be started automatically via an ~/.xsession on Linux or some scripting in your shell’s configuration script of choice (e.g. ~/.bashrc or ~/.zshrc)

GPG_AGENT=$(which gpg-agent)
export GPG_TTY
if [[ -f "$GPG_AGENT" ]]; then

  if test -f "$envfile" && kill -0 $(grep GPG_AGENT_INFO "$envfile" | cut -d: -f 2) 2>/dev/null; then
      source "$envfile"
      eval "$(gpg-agent --daemon --log-file=~/.gpg/gpg.log --write-env-file "$envfile")"
  export GPG_AGENT_INFO  # the env file does not contain the export statement

Also, ensure that default-cache-ttl 6000 is set in ~/.gnupg/gpg-agent.conf to guarantee that your credentials will be cached for the duration of the build.

Making a snapshot (for Calcite committers)

Before you start:

  • Set up signing keys as described above.
  • Make sure you are using JDK 8 (not 9 or 10).
# Make sure that there are no junk files in the sandbox
git clean -xn

mvn -Papache-release clean install

When the dry-run has succeeded, change install to deploy.

Making a release (for Calcite committers)

Before you start:

  • Set up signing keys as described above.
  • Make sure you are using JDK 8 (not 9 or 10).
  • Check that README, site/_docs/, site/_docs/, and docker/src/main/dockerhub/Dockerfile have the correct version number.
  • Check that NOTICE has the current copyright year.
  • Set version.major and version.minor in pom.xml.
  • Add release notes to site/_docs/ Include the commit history, and say which versions of Java, Guava and operating systems the release is tested against.
  • Make sure that every “resolved” JIRA case (including duplicates) has a fix version assigned (most likely the version we are just about to release)

Create a release branch named after the release, e.g. branch-avatica-1.9, and push it to Apache.

$ git checkout -b branch-avatica-X.Y
$ git push -u origin branch-avatica-X.Y

We will use the branch for the entire the release process. Meanwhile, we do not allow commits to the master branch. After the release is final, we can use git merge --ff-only to append the changes on the release branch onto the master branch. (Apache does not allow reverts to the master branch, which makes it difficult to clean up the kind of messy commits that inevitably happen while you are trying to finalize a release.)

Now, set up your environment and do a dry run. The dry run will not commit any changes back to git and gives you the opportunity to verify that the release process will complete as expected.

If any of the steps fail, clean up (see below), fix the problem, and start again from the top.

# Make sure that there are no junk files in the sandbox
git clean -xn

# For the dry run, edit the docker/dockerhub/Dockerfile
patch -p1 <<EOF
diff --git a/docker/src/main/dockerhub/Dockerfile b/docker/src/main/dockerhub/Dockerfile
index 4617a4e..4ccd97f 100644
--- a/docker/src/main/dockerhub/Dockerfile
+++ b/docker/src/main/dockerhub/Dockerfile
@@ -23,3 +23,3 @@ RUN mkdir -p /home/avatica/classpath
# This line must be preserved. The Maven build will verify this version matches its version

# Do a dry run of the release:prepare step, which sets version numbers.
# Typically we increment minor version: If X.Y.Z is 1.10.0, X2.Y2.Z2 is 1.11.0.
mvn -DdryRun=true -DreleaseVersion=X.Y.Z -DdevelopmentVersion=X2.Y2.Z2-SNAPSHOT -Dtag=avatica-X.Y.Z-rcN -Papache-release${asf.username} release:prepare

Check the artifacts:

  • In the target directory should be these 6 files, among others:
    • apache-calcite-avatica-X.Y.Z-src.tar.gz
    • apache-calcite-avatica-X.Y.Z-src.tar.gz.asc
    • apache-calcite-avatica-X.Y.Z-src.tar.gz.sha256
  • Note that the file names start apache-calcite-avatica-.
  • In the two source distros .tar.gz and .zip (currently there is no binary distro), check that all files belong to a directory called apache-calcite-avatica-X.Y.Z-src.
  • That directory must contain files NOTICE, LICENSE, README,
    • Check that the version in README is correct
  • Make sure that there is no KEYS file in the source distros
  • For each .jar (for example core/target/avatica-core-X.Y.Z.jar and server/target/avatica-server-X.Y.Z-sources.jar), verify that the META-INF directory contains the correct contents for DEPENDENCIES, LICENSE and NOTICE per the source/classes contained. Refer to the ASF licensing documentation on what is required.
  • Check PGP, per this

If something is not correct, you can invoke the release:clean mojo to remove the generated files from your workspace:

mvn release:clean

If successful, remove the -DdryRun flag and run the release for real.

# Prepare sets the version numbers, creates a tag, and pushes it to git.
# Typically we increment minor version: If X.Y.Z is 1.10.0, X2.Y2.Z2 is 1.11.0.
mvn -DreleaseVersion=X.Y.Z -DdevelopmentVersion=X2.Y2.Z2-SNAPSHOT -Dtag=avatica-X.Y.Z-rcN -Papache-release${asf.username} release:prepare

# Perform checks out the tagged version, builds, and deploys to the staging repository
mvn -Papache-release${asf.username} release:perform -Darguments="-DskipTests"

Verify the staged artifacts in the Nexus repository:

  • Go to and login
  • Under Build Promotion, click Staging Repositories
  • In the Staging Repositories tab there should be a line with profile org.apache.calcite
  • Navigate through the artifact tree and make sure the .jar, .pom, .asc files are present
  • Check the box on in the first column of the row, and press the ‘Close’ button to publish the repository at (or a similar URL)

Upload the artifacts via subversion to a staging area,

# Create a subversion workspace, if you haven't already
mkdir -p ~/dist/dev
pushd ~/dist/dev
svn co

# Move the files into a directory
cd target
mkdir ~/dist/dev/calcite/apache-calcite-avatica-X.Y.Z-rcN
mv apache-calcite-avatica-* ~/dist/dev/calcite/apache-calcite-avatica-X.Y.Z-rcN

# Check in
cd ~/dist/dev/calcite
svn add apache-calcite-avatica-X.Y.Z-rcN
svn ci

Cleaning up after a failed release attempt (for Calcite committers)

# Make sure that the tag you are about to generate does not already
# exist (due to a failed release attempt)
git tag

# If the tag exists, delete it locally and remotely
git tag -d avatica-X.Y.Z
git push origin :refs/tags/avatica-X.Y.Z

# Remove modified files
mvn release:clean

# Check whether there are modified files and if so, go back to the
# original git commit
git status
git reset --hard HEAD

Validate a release

# Check that the signing key (e.g. 2AD3FAE3) is pushed
gpg --recv-keys key

# Check keys
curl -O

# Sign/check sha256 hashes
# (Assumes your O/S has a 'shasum' command.)
function checkHash() {
  cd "$1"
  for i in *.{zip,pom,gz}; do
    if [ ! -f $i ]; then
    if [ -f $i.sha256 ]; then
      if [ "$(cat $i.sha256)" = "$(shasum -a 256 $i)" ]; then
        echo $i.sha256 present and correct
        echo $i.sha256 does not match
      shasum -a 256 $i > $i.sha256
      echo $i.sha256 created
checkHash apache-calcite-avatica-X.Y.Z-rcN

Get approval for a release via Apache voting process (for Calcite committers)

Release vote on dev list

Subject: [VOTE] Release apache-calcite-avatica-X.Y.Z (release candidate N)

Hi all,

I have created a build for Apache Calcite Avatica X.Y.Z, release candidate N.

Thanks to everyone who has contributed to this release.
<Further details about release.> You can read the release notes here:

The commit to be voted upon:

Its hash is XXXX.

The artifacts to be voted on are located here:

The hashes of the artifacts are as follows:
src.tar.gz.sha256 XXXX XXXX

A staged Maven repository is available for review at:

Release artifacts are signed with the following key:

Please vote on releasing this package as Apache Calcite Avatica X.Y.Z.

The vote is open for the next 72 hours and passes if a majority of
at least three +1 PMC votes are cast.

[ ] +1 Release this package as Apache Calcite X.Y.Z
[ ]  0 I don't feel strongly about it, but I'm okay with the release
[ ] -1 Do not release this package because...

Here is my vote:

+1 (binding)


After vote finishes, send out the result:

Subject: [RESULT] [VOTE] Release apache-calcite-avatica-X.Y.Z (release candidate N)

Thanks to everyone who has tested the release candidate and given
their comments and votes.

The tally is as follows.

N binding +1s:

N non-binding +1s:

No 0s or -1s.

Therefore I am delighted to announce that the proposal to release
Apache Calcite Avatica X.Y.Z has passed.

Thanks everyone. We’ll now roll the release out to the mirrors.

There was some feedback during voting. I shall open a separate
thread to discuss.


Use the Apache URL shortener to generate shortened URLs for the vote proposal and result emails. Examples: and

Publishing a release (for Calcite committers)

After a successful release vote, we need to push the release out to mirrors, and other tasks.

Choose a release date. This is based on the time when you expect to announce the release. This is usually a day after the vote closes. Remember that UTC date changes at 4pm Pacific time.

In JIRA, search for all issues resolved in this release, and do a bulk update changing their status to “Closed”, with a change comment “Resolved in release X.Y.Z (YYYY-MM-DD)” (fill in release number and date appropriately). Uncheck “Send mail for this update”.

Promote the staged nexus artifacts.

  • Go to and login
  • Under “Build Promotion” click “Staging Repositories”
  • In the line with “orgapachecalcite-xxxx”, check the box
  • Press “Release” button

Copy the Git tag:

git tag rel/avatica-X.Y.X avatica-X.Y.Z-rcN
git push origin rel/avatica-X.Y.Z

Check the artifacts into svn.

# Get the release candidate.
mkdir -p ~/dist/dev
cd ~/dist/dev
svn co

# Copy the artifacts. Note that the copy does not have '-rcN' suffix.
mkdir -p ~/dist/release
cd ~/dist/release
svn co
cd calcite
cp -rp ../../dev/calcite/apache-calcite-avatica-X.Y.Z-rcN apache-calcite-avatica-X.Y.Z
svn add apache-calcite-avatica-X.Y.Z

# Check in.
svn ci

Svnpubsub will publish to the release repo and propagate to the mirrors within 24 hours.

If there are now more than 2 releases, clear out the oldest ones:

cd ~/dist/release/calcite
svn rm apache-calcite-avatica-X.Y.Z
svn ci

The old releases will remain available in the release archive.

Publish the Docker images.

Add a release note by copying site/_posts/, generate the javadoc and copy to site/target/avatica/apidocs and site/target/avatica/testapidocs, publish the site, and check that it appears in the contents in news.

After 24 hours, announce the release by sending an email to You can use the 1.8.0 announcement as a template. Be sure to include a brief description of the project.

Publishing the web site (for Calcite committers)

See instructions in site/